“Strategy requires thought, tactics require observation.”-Max Euwe
The following base tactics can be utilized against an ametuer criminal with theft as their purpose, a stalker with malicious intent or a professional seeking intel.
In regards to being under surveillance while being a passenger or driver in a motorized vehicle, it starts before the target ever reaches the intended vehicle.
Other than any possible pre-prepping such as recording and tracking measures, the transit from the point of the target being visible to the point of the target reaching the vehicle is where surveillance starts, and therefore, counter-surveillance.
As with all human counter surveillance methodologies, specific tactics like these may be useful, but it’s pattern recognition, situational awareness and stealth cognizance that matters most.
Always be vigilant and crafty… Unless you’re being monitored by a legitimate agency with a warrant.